This is a sample of our (approximately) 6 page long Tok Essay 2014 Grade A Level 7 Student notes, which we sell as part of the TOK Outlines collection, a A package written at International School Of DüSseldorf in 2014 that contains (approximately) 21 pages of notes across 5 different documents.
Tok Essay 2014 Grade A Level 7 Student Revision
The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our TOK Outlines. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.
"That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow." Consider knowledge issues raised by this statement in two areas of knowledge.
To what extent can knowledge progress over time and does the nature of knowledge influence its progression? For instance, across Areas of Knowledge (AOKs) like the natural sciences and the ethics knowledge may progress differently. This is partially because in each of these AOKs the definition of knowledge slightly differs. The quote by using the word "sometimes" takes into account different possibilities, yet implies that knowledge is not always discarded. To explore whether knowledge accepted today is discarded tomorrow it is important to specify what "knowledge" means in the context of specific AOKs. In the natural sciences "scientific knowledge" may be defined as information that has been found to be valid through empirical evidence and rational deduction and has not yet been disproven. The nature of knowledge may be described by its establishment: It is established through various ways of knowing (WOK). First the scientist uses sense perception to observe his natural surroundings, then using creativity and imagination he could question how a specific natural phenomenon occurs. The natural scientist then aims to find an answer to the question through inductive and deductive logical reasoning, by setting up a hypothesis and finding supporting evidence. Other natural scientists may then come to know those findings through language and replicate them to strengthen prior knowledge or research may result in opposing evidence, potentially leading to the replacement of the old theory with a new one. Thus, the nature of the natural sciences influences its progression. Knowledge in the natural sciences aims to discover permanently valid objective laws of nature. Yet, can a theory be permanently valid? For instance humankind has learned long ago how to make fire and this knowledge has remained permanently valid. However, we have used this knowledge to develop new inventions like fuel, factories, or the Bunsen burner that we use in biology class. Thus, the natural sciences aim to make valid discoveries but since research is ongoing knowledge in the natural sciences changes over time instead of being "discarded".
It is the provisional nature of scientific knowledge that sets up the basis for the way that it progresses: previous knowledge is questioned and shaped, rather than "discarded", to form new scientific knowledge. The latest findings of natural sciences are then regarded as scientific knowledge accepted today while the older findings are one step in the process of acquiring this knowledge. For example in my science class I learned about Leucippus and Democritus, 5th century BC (Timeline of the Atomic Bomb), who were the first to develop theories on atomism, forming the foundations for knowledge developed by Newton in the 17th century and following various scientists that again developed this knowledge further (History of the Atomic Bomb). In such cases, knowledge may still be accepted as being valid, yet is perceived as limited since more extensive knowledge has been built upon it. However, this is assuming that scientists knew about the previous scientists' work. It may have been unlikely such knowledge existed when we consider scientific research in a time before communication between scientists around the world was possible. Oftentimes the buildup of knowledge is possible by enhancing WOK, as with the stethoscope that enhances auditory sense perception. From the above it can be seen that in the natural sciences knowledge accepted "today" is modified rather than discarded - even if a previous scientist found knowledge that could be falsified, it may have led later scientists closer towards a valid model. In contrast, it could be claimed that a paradigm shift, where a former valid theory was totally abandoned and replaced by a different theory, shows that knowledge in the natural sciences can be discarded. An example of an old theory being replaced by another, since contrary evidence was found, can be taken from my IB biology class where we learn about Mendel's law of independent assortment that widely changed the understanding of genetics. He proposed that alleles of genes located on different chromosomes assort independently from one another, creating genetic variety. Before Mendel, people often believed that the characteristics of parents were equally blended in the offspring. However, the paradigm shift may require some time to be accepted by the general public, as this depends on factors like perspectives, culture and beliefs of people, as well as pre-existing assumptions that had
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Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our TOK Outlines.
You are required to write a 1200-1600 word essay on a title set by the IB. The essays for 2013 graduation are here:
May 2013 TOK titles
TOK essays May 2014
Mr Langston’s Essay 5 and 6 Keynote
You may not change the title in any way. You should aim for 1600 words, as shorter essays rarely meet all the criteria.
The full essay criteria are here: Assessment Criteria ESSAY
There is also a useful summary here: Essay criteria breakdown
You are going to use this essay_template to start thinking about your essay. You will need to turn this in next week.
This summary will help you structure your essay – TOK Essay Plan Template
Please download and use one or ALL of these planning sheets to help you get started.
Planning Sheet ToK Essay copy
One way of approaching your TOK essay
Essay Planning Form
Your cover page for final submission MUST look like this:
Here is a very good exemplar essay, together with the IB’s comments and marks.
Example 1 Marks
essay 10 marks
TOK essay: for the LAST time!
Have you read and understood all the different criteria for assessment? Really?
Does your essay number between 1200 and 1600 words? (it should be far nearer 1600 than 1200!)
Have you organized your essay into an introduction, 2-3 examples, and a conclusion?
Is your introduction concise, with a discussion of what the title means, and a brief plan of how your essay will tackle the question?
Are your knowledge issues organized CLEARLY (using linking sentences) into arguments and counterclaims?
Have you referred explicitly to the different AOKs and WOKs, and provided links between them?
Have you used personal examples, specifically from your experiences as an ‘IB learner’, and avoided hypothetical ones?
Have you used well-referenced examples that you have found out about from beyond the classroom (articles, documentaries, books, the ideas of thinkers, etc.)?
Have you considered other perspectives and points of view?
Have you identified implications of your arguments and some of the counterclaims?
Is your conclusion consistent with the rest of your essay?
Yes, to all of these? If so, you’ve done great job. If not, go back and do a great job!
Other essay resources
Six steps to writing a good TOK essay: A student guide by Colleen H. Parker at SPHS
Writing a TOK essay, by Richard van de Lagemaat
How to Write a Good TOK Essay, By Peg Robinson
This in link TheoryofKnowledgeStudent.com goes through a variety of examples of how to answer some of the questions from previous years.
Mr Hoyes’ Notes on The ToK Essay
How to Write a Good ToK Paper, from Collective Thinking
Writing a TOK Essay, from ‘Findings’ Part One, Two, Three, Four, and Five.
10 Tips on Writing a Good Theory of Knowledge Essay, from the American International School of Lusaka
Guide to writing the TOK Essay, from IBCram
Tips for writing a good ToK Essay by Ric Sims @ Nothing Nerdy