By Sally Raskoff
Have you ever thought about how your social relationships at school (and elsewhere) might help you in the future?
Social capital, conceptualized by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, includes economic resources that one gains from being part of a network of social relationships, including group membership.
Cultural capital, also from Bourdieu, includes non-economic resources that enable social mobility. Examples of cultural capital would include knowledge, skills, and education. Both concepts remind us that social networks and culture have value. Bourdieu discussed other forms of capital, including economic and symbolic. Economic capital refers to monetary resources or those with exchange value, i.e., money.
Going to school, whether it is kindergarten through high school or college, generates a potential to build both social capital and cultural capital. How do we build social capital? We belong to groups and networks, some of which we may not even be aware.
What groups or networks might you be part of? Each class you enroll and participate in has both the teaching professional(s) and other students. Each student club that you may join consists of a faculty sponsor and other students. Your major and minor academic emphasis may have its own network or group. The college as a whole offers multiple points of access to social capital. If you use campus resources such as learning or tutoring centers, programs for students with disabilities, or those that serve under-represented students, such as the writing center, or financial aid office.
So, how does being part of all these groups translate into building social capital?
The more immersed you are in that group, the more social capital you can potentially build. If one only goes into an office once, that is not really group membership. But note how classes sometimes take on a personality or group identity. Just being a member of a certain college confers group membership. This is readily apparent at sports competitions with other colleges. After you graduate, the alumni office will be calling with offers for social engagement and requests for donations.
When you are part of these groups, you meet the people who are also members. Each office and person you come into contact with could be a part of your current or future job hunt process. I have had students who became student workers on campus because they were part of a group on campus, even if it was just visiting our Writing Center regularly to get help with their written assignments or the Tutoring Center to get help with class materials.
Being alumna of the University of Southern California, I was a part of quite a few groups when I was there for graduate school. I was part of the Sociology department, taking classes and working as a Teaching Assistant. I also worked for the Joint Educational Project, a service-learning program that had its own house on campus and identity. I made my faculty committee to oversee my research and that also became a group. All of these entities built social capital for me as most alerted me to jobs or research grants both during my time at USC and later.
How do we build cultural capital? We engage in activities that generate our knowledge, skills, and education.
When you are a college student, what you learn in class, in your major and minor academic degree program, and overall, are all building cultural capital. How much you engage with the class materials might determine how much cultural capital you generate.
What if you’re not just taking the class for a grade but want to learn what it offers? You would then be building cultural capital since you would immerse yourself in the class materials, do the work with deep thought and preparation, interact with the faculty to understand how you can do better, seek out additional resources to deepen your understanding of the topic (like the Everyday Sociology Blog!), and you could access that information for years after, even perhaps for the rest of your lifetime. Gaining knowledge, building skills, and getting a true education will change the way you think, the choices you might make, and what you have learned will become part of you.
My own example would show how my cultural capital came from accumulating knowledge and skills through the many classes I took in my college career, how my major and degrees (BA, MA, PhD), and my education overall, helped me move into positions that had higher and higher social rank. Due to the experience I gained in the military, I was working as a computer consultant a small non-profit organization when I graduated with my BA in sociology and social work. I continued on to work on an MA in sociology and worked as a research consultant in marketing research and other projects. When I moved to graduate school, I became a teaching assistant – a status that is temporary and not necessarily higher than that of my previous jobs – but then into teaching my own classes. I moved into the status of professor through building my knowledge and gaining more skill in doing and teaching sociology.
Of course, cultural capital can be built outside formal education. When you read or learn new information that can also be considered building cultural capital.
Using your experience or that of your colleagues, what other campus groups and networks can you identify? Using your experience or that of your colleagues, how else might cultural capital be generated?
Cultural Capital can be defined as the skills and knowledge which an individual can draw on to give them an advantage in social life. In this post, I explore Bourdieu’s foundational concept of the Habitus and then look at how cultural capital can give children an advantage in education.
This is in a bit more depth than you would usually get on a regular A level course.
Capital can be defined as any assets that can improve your life chances.
Cultural Capital – having the skills, knowledge, norms and values which can be used to get ahead in education and life more generally.
Social Capital – possession of social contacts that can ‘open doors’.
Cultural Capital Theory is a Marxist theory of differential educationl achievement. In contrast to cultural deprivation theory, cultural capital theory does not see working class culture as inferior, or lacking in any way, it just sees it as different to middle class culture. Instead of blaming working class underachievement on flawed working-class culture, cultural capital theory focuses on the dominance of middle class culture in society and social institutions.
In short, middle class children are more likely to succeed because the education system is run by the middle classes and works in their interests. The middle classes are able to define their own culture as superior and thus working class culture and working class children are marginalised in the education system and end up underachieving.
Pierre Bourdieu and The Habitus
The Marxist sociologist Pierre Bourdieu is the theorist most closely associated with developing the concept of cultural capital and applying it to education.
Bourdieu argued that each class has its own cultural framework, or set of norms, values and ideas which he calls the habitus. This habitus contains a set of assumptions about what counts as good and bad taste which influences the kind of leisure activities different classes engage in, the kind of places they visit, where they go on holiday, the kind of television programmes they are likely to watch, what kinds of books they are likely to read and the type of music they are likely to listen to.
The middle class habitus places much more value on the following kinds of activities, and thus these are the kinds of activities which middle class children are more likely to be exposed to compared to working class children:
Reading non-fiction and classical literature rather than pop literature
Watching documentaries rather than soap operas
Learning to play classical instruments (e.g. The Piano)
Going on educational visits – to museums and art galleries for example
Going on holidays abroad (to ‘broaden horizons’).
Exposure to the above activities provides middle class children with ‘cultural capital’ – many of the above activities are inherently educational in nature and provide middle class children with skills and knowledge which give them an advantage at school. This knowledge can either be specific – such as with reading non-fiction, or more general – such as cultural trips providing children with a sense of independence and self-confidence.
Middle class culture is also the dominant culture in most schools, and schools place high value on the above types of middle class skills and knowledge. Middle class children thus ‘just fit in’ with middle class schools, they are at home in a middle class environment, they don’t need to do anything else other than be themselves in order to belong and thrive at school.
In contrast, working class culture (with its immediate gratification and restricted speech codes) is seen as inferior by most schools. The default assumption of the school in regards to working class children is that school is somewhere where working class children are taught to be more middle class – thus by default working class culture is devalued and working class children are more likely to struggle in education as a result.
One important (and easy to undersand) aspect of cultural capital theory is educational capital – middle class parents are educated to a higher level than working class parents (they are more likely to have university degrees) – an obvious advantage of this is that they are more able to help children with homework throughout their school careers, but the are also more likely to socialise their children into thinking that going to university is a normal part of life – and thus good GCSEs and A levels are a necessity rather than being a choice.
Research on Cultural Capital (look up the following)
- Dianna Reay – Middle Class Mothers Make The Difference
- Stephen Ball – The 1988 Education Act gave middle class parents more choice
- Alison Sullivan – A Quantitative Study of how cultural capital effects 400 children
- Why do Working Class Kids Lack Aspiration (Broad support for Cultural Capital Theory)
Evaluations of Cultural Capital Theory
Cultural capital seems more relevant now with neoliberal education policies – marketisation (and free schools) gave parents and schools more freedom – middle class parents and schools use this freedom to exlude the working classes.
Social capital theory is useful in explaning the punishingly depressing fact that privately educated children often use their social networks to get internships to get them into the ‘professions’.
Unlike cultural deprivation theory Bourdieu etc. do not see working class culture as inferior or blame the working classes for the failure of their children.
The theory links indside and outside school factors – middle class families and middle class schools work together to exlude working class children (espeically see Ball’s idea about the school-parent alliance).
The theory may be more relevant now with the establishment of Free Schools – Only middle class parents really have the cultural capital necessary to set up Free Schools.
Criticisms/ Limitations of Cultural Capital Theory
Most statistical research suggests material deprivation and economic capital are more significant factors than cultural capital in explaining class differences in educational achievement.
It may be unfair to blame schools for being biased against working class children – many schools put extra resources into helping working class children.
From a research methods point of view, it is more difficult to research and test out some aspects of cultural capital theory – how do you measure the effect of piano lessons on educational achievement for example?
If cultural deprivation theory is true – there are no practical solutions to reducing class inequalities in education within the existing system – more radical (revolutionary?) changes are necessary.
Cultural Capital Theory – A Summary of The Key Ideas:
Middle Class Socialisation = Cultural Advantage– Literature, Classical Music and Museums
Middle Class Parents better educated = help with homework/ University seen as necessary
Stephen Ball – Skilled Choosers and the School Parent Alliance
Social Capital = Internship in friends Dad’s Law Firm = UNFAIR
Positive Evaluation – Blames the middle classes/ More relevant with 1988 and Free Schools
Negative Evaluation – Money matters more/ no practical solutions to WC failure.
Examples of Cultural Capital in Action
Parents encouraging their children to read.
Parents taking their children on a trip to a museum.
Parents taking their children on a cultural sight seeing tour abroad.
Parents encouraging their children to learn the Piano.
Parents helping their children with homework.
Parents using their research skills to research which school to send their child to.
Parents phoning the school to get their children extra support lessons.
Parents taking their child for a dyslexia test to get them extra time in exams.
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