Respirometer Coursework

7. As the organism inside the respirometer consumes oxygen, what happens to the water? As O2is used up, the pressure of gases inside the respirometer decreases. This causes water to enter the pipette.8. What happens to the CO2 that the organism produces?The CO2that is produced combines with KOH to form a solid precipitate, K2CO3.9. Experimental Setup (View the graphic), then create this data table in your notebook and fll it in.Vial 1 Vial 2Vial 3Vial 4 Vial 5Vial 6Contents25 germinating peas 25 non- germinating peas andglass beadsglass beads25 germinating peas 25 non- germinating peas andglass beadsglass beadsTemperature283K283K283k298K298K298K10.How do you ensure that each vial has an equal volume?You do this by adding glass beads to the vial with the dormant peas, since the dry peas take up less space than an equal quantity of germinating peas.11.What is the purpose oF the vial with only glass beads?the vial with only glass beads are serving as the non-metabolic control group oF the experiment.Analyzing the Results 1. What is the equation to determine the rate oF respiration?Rate = slope of the line, or Δ y/Δ x2. What is x? What is y?yis the change in volume, and Δ xis the change in time (10 min).3. Read the respirometers and determine the rate oF respiration.

Human senses

1 Reaction time
The distance a vertical ruler falls before being gripped is converted to a time interval

1.01 Reaction time
1.02 Discussion
1.03 Discussion - answers
1.04 Reaction time - preparation
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2a The blind spot (1)
A dot seems to disappear when its image falls on the blind spot
2b The blind spot (2)
A gap in a line is 'filled in' when its image falls on the blind spot

2.01 The blind spot (a) & (b)
2.02 Discussion - answers
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3 Inversion of the image
When a pin is viewed via a pinhole in front of the pin, its image appears to be inverted

3.01 Inversion of the image
3.02 Discussion & preparation
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4a The iris diaphragm (1)
The iris is observed to reduce the size of the pupil when the eye is exposed to light
4b The iris diaphragm (2)
(Broca's pupillometer) A pattern of pinholes appears to change when one eye is exposed to light

4.01 Iris diaphragm (1) & (2)
4.02 Discussion - answers & preparation
4.03 Ray diagram for pupillometer
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5 Retinal capillaries
By moving a pinhole about in front of the eye, an image of retinal capillaries appears

5.01 Retinal capillaries
5.02 Discussion - answers & preparation
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6a Binocular vision: eye dominance
A pencil lined up with a window frame appears to 'jump' when the dominant eye is closed
6b Binocular vision: double vision
Slight pressure on one eyeball causes a single object to appear as a double image

6.01 Binocular vision (a) and (b)
6.02 Discussion - answers
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7 Judgement of distance
The space sequence of coloured pinheads is judged using either one or both eyes

7.01 Judgement of distance
7.02 Discussion & preparation
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8 Eye and hand co-ordination
A star pattern is traced while looking in a mirror

8.01 Eye and hand co-ordination
8.02 Discussion
8.03 Discussion - answers
8.04 Eye and hand co-ordination - preparation
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9 Perception
Two shapes are observed, and demonstrate that the brain makes an interpretation of the image

9.01 Perception

10 Sensitivity of the skin to touch
Different areas of skin are tested with light touch to see if there are differences in reponse

10.01 Sensitivity of the skin to touch
10.02 Discussion
10.03 Discussion - answers
10.04 Sensitivity to touch - preparation
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11 Recognition of separate stimuli
(Spatial discrimination) Different areas of skin are tested with a 'hairpin' to see if they can discriminate a double touch from a single touch

11.01 Recognition of separate stimuli
11.02 Discussion
11.03 Discussion - answers
11.04 Recognition of stimuli - preparation
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12 Sensitivity to temperature
One finger is placed in hot water and another in cold water. Both are then placed in warm water and the sensations compared

12.01 Sensitivity to temperature
12.02 Discussion and preparation
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13 Location of stimuli
A marble is rolled between crossed fingers to give the sensation of two marbles

13.01 Location of stimuli
13.02 Discussion - answers & preparation
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Transport in plants

1 Uptake and evaporation in leaves
The uptake of water by single leaves is measured after coating either, neither or both surfaces with Vaseline

1.01 Uptake and evaporation in leaves
1.02 Discussion
1.03 Discussion - answers
1.04 Uptake and evaporation in leaves - preparation
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2 Uptake of water by shoots
The uptake of water by a shoot is measured, using a potometer

2.01 Uptake of water by shoots
2.02 Discussion
2.03 Discussion - answers
2.04 Uptake of water by shoots - preparation
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3 Rates of transpiration
The potometer is used in different conditions to compare rates of uptake by the shoot

3.01 Rates of transpiration
3.02 Discussion
3.03 Discussion - answers
3.04 Rates of transpiration - preparation
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4 Rate of transpiration and water uptake
By weighing the shoot and potometer, the uptake and loss of water are compared

4.01 Rate of transpiration and water uptake
4.02 Discussion
4.03 Discussion - answers
4.04 Rate of transpiration and water uptake - preparation
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5 Uptake of water by an uprooted plant
The potometer is modified to accept a whole plant rather than a cut shoot

5.01 Uptake of water by an uprooted plant
5.02 Discussion
5.03 Discussion - answers
5.04 Uptake of water by an uprooted plant - preparation
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6 Conditions affecting evaporation
A simple atmometer is used to investigate the effects of different atmospheric conditions on the rate of evaporation

6.01 Conditions affecting evaporation
6.02 Discussion
6.03 Discussion - answers
6.04 Conditions affecting evaporation - preparation
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7 Water tension in the stem
The lower end of the potometer is placed in mercury, which is pulled up the capillary by the transpiration force

7.01 Water tension in the stem
7.02 Water tension in the stem - preparation
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8 Pathways for gases in a leaf
A leaf is immersed in hot water to expand and force out any air inside it

8.01 Pathways for gases in a leaf
8.02 Pathways for gases in a leaf - preparation
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9 Evaporation from the leaf surface
Evaporation from the upper and lower leaf surface is compared and correlated with the distribution of stomata

9.01 Evaporation from the leaf surface
9.02 Discussion
9.03 Discussion - answers
9.04 Evaporation from the leaf surface - preparation
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10 To collect and identify the product of transpiration
The shoot of a plant is enclosed in a plastic bag. The liquid which condenses is identified

10.01 To collect and identify the product of transpiration
10.02 To collect and identify the product of transpiration - preparation
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11 To trace the path of water through a shoot
Shoots are placed in a dye in order to investigate the route it takes through the stem and leaves

11.01 To trace the pathway of water through a shoot
11.02 To trace the pathway of water through a shoot - preparation
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12 Conducting pathways through the shoot
A syringe is used to force air through a shoot held under water, Air bubbles show the continuity of the vessels

12.01 Conducting pathways in the shoot
12.02 Discussion
12.03 Discussion - answers
12.04 Conducting pathways in the shoot - preparation
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13 Measuring the transpiration rate of a potted plant
Two potted plants, one in sunlight and one in shadow are weighed at intervals

13.01 Measuring the transpiration rate of a potted plant
13.02 Measuring the transpiration rate of a potted plant - preparation
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14 Measuring the transpiration rate of an uprooted plant
Two flasks of water are weighed at intervals. One of them contains a plant

14.01 Measuring the transpiration rate of an uprooted plant
14.02 Measuring the transpiration rate of an uprooted plant - preparation
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Germination and tropisms

Introduction

Introduction
Resources list
Germination times - peas and wheat
Germination times - sunflower and maize
Germination times - French bean
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1 The need for oxygen
Cress seeds are sown on moist cotton wool in 2 flasks one of which contains pyrogallic acid and sodium hydroxide

1.01 Need for oxygen
1.02 Discussion
1.03 Discussion - answers
1.04 Need for oxygen - preparation
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2 Effect of temperature
Maize fruits are germinated in moist blotting paper at different temperatures

2.01 Effect of temperature
2.02 Discussion
2.03 Discussion - answers
2.04 Effect of temperature - preparation
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3 The need for water
Seeds are left in moist, dry and waterlogged conditions for a week

3.01 Need for water
3.02 Discussion answers and preparation
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4 The role of cotyledons
Runner bean embryos attached to varying amounts of cotyledon are germinated on moist blotting paper in jars

4.01 Role of cotyledons
4.02 Discussion
4.03 Discussion - answers
4.04 Role of cotyledons - preparation
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5 Use of food reserves in germination
Coleoptiles and endosperm of cereal seedlings and grains are tested for starch and sugar

5.01 Use of food reserves
5.02 Discussion
5.03 Discussion - answers
5.04 Use of food reserves - preparation
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6 Geotropism in radicles
Pea seedlings are pinned to a clinostat, or a stationary base, with their radicles horizontal

6.01 Geotropism in radicles
6.02 Discussion
6.03 Discussion - answers
6.04 Geotropism in radicles - preparation
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7 The region of growth and response in radicles
Radicles are marked with equidistant lines and left horizontally or vertically for two days

7.01 Region of growth and response in radicles
7.02 Discussion
7.03 Discussion - answers
7.04 Region of growth and response in radicles - preparation
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8 Region of detection and response to one-sided gravity in radicles
Different lengths of root tip are excised to see if the radicles still grow and respond to gravity

8.01 Detection of unilateral gravity
8.02 Discussion
8.03 Discussion - answers

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